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Srm online examination slot 2019

Srm online examination slot 2019

We inaugurated our another brand new coaching center under the name British International Academy in Ernakulam, Kerala with the commitment of flexibility and customer ease. Our new office features all best facilities with multiple computer workstations and distinctive design with progressive English language coaching m The office is strategically located in the heart of the city with access to connectivity with Kochi Metro, nearby Hotels and boasts of being one among the most visited tourist destinations in India.

British International Academy employees are empowered to connect with customers and counterparts directly. The inaugural started on Wednesday, 19 September in morning with a prayer service where our office was blessed and protected according to Indian Christian traditions. On the occasion, Mr. IELTS pte spokenenglish monsoondiscount coachingclassess ieltsinkochi ieltsinernakulam kerala spokenenglishclassinernakulam spokenenglishinkochi. He touched many hearts with his inspiring words. An excellent motivator ever ready to guide and teach. A disciplinarian who possessed an iron will. He was a leader and inspired everyone around him to do their best and to take it to a new level.

Rest In Peace! Register till 10th - March 31! Believe in yourself! You can do it! We will make it happen together. British India Academy is proud to be the No. Christmas is here!!! Vai a. Sezioni di questa pagina. An obstacle formed at the shallow entrance to the mouth of a river or bay. A region in which a temperature gradient exists on a constant pressure surface. Baroclinic zones are favored areas for strengthening and weakening systems; barotropic systems, on the other hand, do not exhibit significant changes in intensity. Also, wind shear is characteristic of a baroclinic zone. A cloud pattern on satellite images - frequently noted in advance of formation of a low pressure center.

A measure of the state of stratification in a fluid in which surfaces of constant pressure isobaric intersect surfaces of constant density isosteric. A weather system in which temperature and pressure surfaces are coincident, i. Barotropic systems are characterized by a lack of wind shear, and thus are generally unfavorable areas for severe thunderstorm development. See baroclinic zone. Usually, in operational meteorology, references to barotropic systems refer to equivalent barotropic systems - systems in which temperature gradients exist, but are parallel to height gradients on a constant pressure surface. In such systems, height contours and isotherms are parallel everywhere, and winds do not change direction with height.

As a rule, a true equivalent barotropic system can never be achieved in the real atmosphere. While some systems such as closed lows or cutoff lows may reach a state that is close to equivalent barotropic, the term barotropic system usually is used in a relative sense to describe systems that are really only close to being equivalent barotropic, i. The state of a fluid in which surfaces of constant density or temperature are coincident with surfaces of constant pressure; it is the state of zero baroclinity. In hydrologic terms, any artificial obstruction placed in water to increase water level or divert it. Usually the idea is to control peak flow for later release. A jet-like wind current that forms when a stably-stratified low-level airflow approaches a mountain barrier and turns to the left to blow parallel to the longitudinal axis of the barrier.

The serial number assigned to day rotation periods of solar and geophysical parameters. Rotation 1 in this sequence was assigned arbitrarily by Bartel to begin in January In hydrologic terms, the national standard for floodplain management is the base, or one percent chance flood. This flood has at least one chance in of occurring in any given year.

It is also called a year flood. Base Reflectivity is the default image. In hydrologic terms, a computer which accepts radio signals from ALERT gaging sites, decodes the data, places the data in a database, and makes the data available to other users. In hydrologic terms, streamflow which results from precipitation that infiltrates into the soil and eventually moves through the soil to the stream channel.

This is also referred to as ground water flow, or dry-weather flow. An area having a common outlet for its surface runoff. Also called a "Drainage Basin. The topographic dividing line around the perimeter of a basin, beyond which overland flow i. In hydrologic terms, the time it takes from the centroid of rainfall for the hydrograph to peak. In hydrologic terms, rainfall that adds to the residual moisture of the basin in order to help recharge the water deficit.

The science of measuring depths of the oceans, lakes, seas, etc. The movement of beach materials by some combination of high waves, currents and tides, or wind. The term reflects the danger involved in observing such an area visually, which must be done at close range in low visibility. The Beaufort wind scale is a system used to estimate and report wind speeds when no measuring apparatus is available. It was invented in the early 19th Century by Admiral Sir Francis Beaufort of the British Navy as a way to interpret winds from conditions at sea. Since that time, the scale has been modernized for effects on land. Beaufort Force 0 - Wind less than 1 kt, Calm, Sea surface smooth and mirror-like.

Smoke rises vertically. Smoke drift indicates wind direction, still wind vanes. Wind felt on face, leaves rustle, vanes begin to move. Beaufort Force 3 - Wind kt, Gentle Breeze, Large wavelets, crests begin to break, scattered whitecaps. Leaves and small twigs constantly moving, light flags extended. Dust, leaves, and loose paper lifted, small tree branches move. Beaufort Force 5 - Winds kt, Fresh Breeze, Moderate waves 4 -8 ft taking longer form, many whitecaps, some spray.

Small trees in leaf begin to sway. Beaufort Force 6 - Winds kt, Strong Breeze, Larger waves 8 ft, whitecaps common, more spray. Larger tree branches moving, whistling in wires. Beaufort Force 7 - Winds kt, Near Gale, Sea heaps up, waves 13 ft, white foam streaks off breakers. Whole trees moving, resistance felt walking against wind. Beaufort Force 8 - Winds kt Gale, Moderately high 13 ft waves of greater length, edges of crests begin to break into spindrift, foam blown in streaks.

Whole trees in motion, resistance felt walking against wind. Beaufort Force 9 - Winds kt, Strong Gale, High waves 20 ft , sea begins to roll, dense streaks of foam, spray may reduce visibility. Slight structural damage occurs, slate blows off roofs. Beaufort Force 10 - Winds kt, Storm, Very high waves 20 ft with overhanging crests, sea white densely blown foam, heavy rolling, lowered visibility.

Seldom experienced on land, trees broken or uprooted, "considerable structural damage". Beaufort Force 11 - Winds kt, Violent Storm, Exceptionally high 30 ft waves, foam patches cover sea, visibility more reduced. It is attached to a supercells general updraft and is oriented roughly parallel to the pseudo-warm front, i. As with any inflow band, cloud elements move toward the updraft, i. Its size and shape change as the strength of the inflow changes.

See also inflow stinger. In hydrologic terms, sand, silt, gravel, or soil and rock detritus carried by a stream on or immediately above its bed. The particles of this material have a density or grain size such as to preclude movement far above or for a long distance out of contact with the stream bed under natural conditions of flow. In hydrologic terms, date on which ice forming a stable winter ice cover is first observed on the water surface.

In hydrologic terms, date of definite breaking, movement, or melting of ice cover or significant rise of water level. BM - In hydrologic terms, a permanent point whose known elevation is tied to a national network. These points are created to serve as a point of reference. Benchmarks have generally been established by the USGS, but may have been established by other Federal or local agencies. Benchmarks can be found on USGS maps. The process by which ice crystals in a cloud grow at the expense of supercooled liquid water droplets. A piece of ice which has broken away from an iceberg, extending meters above the sea surface and square meters in area. Can also be the remains of a melting iceberg.

A semi-permanent, subtropical area of high pressure in the North Atlantic Ocean off the East Coast of North America that migrates east and west with varying central pressure. A subjectively-smoothed representation of a tropical cyclones location and intensity over its lifetime. The best track contains the cyclones latitude, longitude, maximum sustained surface winds, and minimum sea-level pressure at 6-hourly intervals.

Best track positions and intensities, which are based on a post-storm assessment of all available data, may differ from values contained in storm advisories. They also generally will not reflect the erratic motion implied by connecting individual center fix positions. Slang reference to patchy ice on roadways or other transportation surfaces that cannot easily be seen. In hydrologic terms, transparent ice formed in rivers and lakes. A hypothetical "body" that absorbs all of the electromagnetic radiation striking it - it does not reflect or transmit any of the incident radiation. A blackbody not only absorbs all wavelengths, but emits at all wavelengths with the maximum possible intensity for any given temperature.

Blackbody RadiationThe electromagnetic radiation emitted by an ideal blackbody adhering to the radiation laws; it is the theoretical maximum amount of electromagnetic radiation of all wavelengths that can be emitted by a body at a given temperature. BLZD - A blizzard means that the following conditions are expected to prevail for a period of 3 hours or longer: These conditions are expected to prevail for a minimum of 3 hours. Flow approaching a mountain barrier that is too weak or too stable to be carried over the barrier. A descriptor used to amplify observed weather phenomena whenever the phenomena are raised to a height of 6 feet or more above the ground.

Strong winds over dry ground, that has little or no vegetation, can lift particles of dust or sand into the air. These airborne particles can reduce visibility, cause respiratory problems, and have an abrasive affect on machinery. Blowing snow is wind-driven snow that reduces surface visibility. Blowing snow can be falling snow or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds. Blowing snow is usually accompanied by drifting snow. Issued when wind driven snow reduces surface visibility, possibly, hampering traveling.

Blowing snow may be falling snow, or snow that has already accumulated but is picked up and blown by strong winds. A regional downslope wind whose source is so cold that it is experienced as a cold wind, despite compression warming as it descends the lee slope of a mountain range. In hydrologic terms, an ice sheet in the form of a long border attached to the bank or shore. In general, a layer of air adjacent to a bounding surface. Specifically, the term most often refers to the planetary boundary layer, which is the layer within which the effects of friction are significant.

The effects of friction die out gradually with increasing height, so the "top" of this layer cannot be defined exactly. There is a thin layer immediately above the earths surface known as the surface boundary layer or simply the surface layer. This layer is only a portion of the planetary boundary layer, and represents the layer within which friction effects are more or less constant throughout as opposed to decreasing with height, as they do above it. The surface boundary layer is roughly 10 meters thick from the surface up to 10 m above the ground , but again the exact depth is indeterminate.

Like friction, the effects of insolation and radiational cooling are strongest within this layer. Also known as a vault. Radar signature within a thunderstorm characterized by a local minimum in radar reflectivity at low levels which extends upward into, and is surrounded by, higher reflectivities aloft. This feature is associated with a strong updraft and is almost always found in the inflow region of a thunderstorm. It cannot be seen visually. A radar echo which is linear but bent outward in a bow shape. Damaging straight-line winds often occur near the "crest" or center of a bow echo.

Areas of circulation also can develop at either end of a bow echo, which sometimes can lead to tornado formation - especially in the left usually northern end, where the circulation exhibits cyclonic rotation. Bowen RatioFor any moist surface, the ratio of heat energy used for sensible heating conduction and convection to the heat energy used for latent heating evaporation of water or sublimation of snow.

The Bowen ratio ranges from about 0. It is named for Ira S. Bowen , an American astrophysicist. A computer model used to calculate air pollution concentrations. A box model is based on the assumption that pollutants are emitted into a box through which they are immediately and uniformly dispersed. The sides and bottom of the box are defined by the sidewalls and floor of the valley being studied. In hydrologic terms, characterized by successive division and rejoining of streamflow with accompanying islands. A braided stream is composed of anabranches. In hydrologic terms, accumulation of floating ice made up of fragments not more than 2 meters across; the wreckage of other forms of ice.

Waves that break, displaying white water. Depends on wave steepness and bottom bathymetry. In hydrologic terms, the time when a river whose surface has been frozen from bank to bank for a significant portion of its length begins to change to an open water flow condition. Breakup is signaled by the breaking of the ice and often associated with ice jams and flooding. In hydrologic terms, date on which a body of water is first observed to be entirely clear of ice and remains clear thereafter. In hydrologic terms, an ice jam that occurs as a result of the accumulation of broken ice pieces. In hydrologic terms, the period of disintegration of an ice cover. A distinct feature observed by a radar that denotes the freezing level of the atmosphere.

The term originates from a horizontal band of enhanced reflectivity that can result when a radar antenna scans vertically through precipitation. The freezing level in a cloud contains ice particles that are coated with liquid water. These particles reflect significantly more radiation appearing to the radar as large raindrops than the portions of the cloud above and below the freezing layer.

The bright band can affect the ability of the NEXRAD algorithms to produce accurate rainfall estimates at far ranges because the algorithm may interpret reflectivity from the bright band as an overestimate of precipitation reaching the surface. In solar-terrestrial terms, a bright gaseous stream surge emanating from the chromosphere. In solar-terrestrial terms, a large gaseous stream surge that moves outward more than 0.

A basic visual sensation describing the amount of light that appears to emanate from an object, or more precisely, the luminance of an object. A method of signaling in which multiple signals share the bandwidth of the transmission by the subdivision of the bandwidth into channels based on frequency. An optical phenomenon sometimes occurring at high altitudes when the image of an observer placed between the sun and a cloud is projected on the cloud as a greatly magnified shadow.

The shadows head is surrounded by rings of color, called a glory. A mesoscale area of high pressure, typically associated with cooler air from the rainy downdraft area of a thunderstorm or a complex of thunderstorms. A gust front or outflow boundary separates a bubble high from the surrounding air. In hydrologic terms, a water stage recording device that is capable of attaching to a LARC for data automation purposes.

A non-dimensional i. Generally, values in the range of around 50 to suggest environmental conditions favorable for supercell development. The tendency of a body to float or to rise when submerged in a fluid; the power of a fluid to exert an upward force on a body placed in it. In solar-terrestrial terms, a transient enhancement of the solar radio emission, usually associated with an active region or flare. Slang for an inaccurate forecast, especially one where significant weather e.

Buttress dams are comprised of reinforced masonry or stonework built against concrete. They are usually in the form of flat decks or multiple arches. They require about 60 percent less concrete than gravity dams, but the increased form work and reinforcement steel required usually offset the savings in concrete. Many were built in the s when the ratio of labor cost to materials was comparatively low. However, this type of construction is not competitive with other types of dams when labor costs are high.

Dimensions have been reported to be generally between 10 and 20 cm, but sometimes even up to 1 m. It moves slowly in the air or on the ground and usually disappears with a violent explosion. Convective Available Potential Energy. A measure of the amount of energy available for convection. CAPE is directly related to the maximum potential vertical speed within an updraft; thus, higher values indicate greater potential for severe weather. However, as with other indices or indicators, there are no threshold values above which severe weather becomes imminent.

CAPE is represented on an upper air sounding by the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is warmer than the former. This area often is called positive area. See also CIN. In hydrologic terms, Cubic Feet per Second - the flow rate or discharge equal to one cubic foot of water, usually per second. This rate is equivalent to approximately 7. This is also referred to as a second-foot. Convective INhibition. A measure of the amount of energy needed in order to initiate convection.

Values of CIN typically reflect the strength of the cap. They are obtained on a sounding by computing the area enclosed between the environmental temperature profile and the path of a rising air parcel, over the layer within which the latter is cooler than the former. This area sometimes is called negative area. See CAPE. Coronal Rain - In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots. Cumulus clouds - Detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers.

Tops normally are rounded while bases are more horizontal. See Cb, towering cumulus. In hydrologic terms, the process of using historical data to estimate parameters in a hydrologic forecast technique such as SACSMA, routings, and unit hydrographs. A foehn wind that is channeled through a canyon as it descends the lee side of a mountain barrier.

Air parcels rising into this layer become cooler than the surrounding air, which inhibits their ability to rise further and produce thunderstorms. As such, the cap often prevents or delays thunderstorm development even in the presence of extreme instability. However, if the cap is removed or weakened, then explosive thunderstorm development can occur. The cap is an important ingredient in most severe thunderstorm episodes, as it serves to separate warm, moist air below and cooler, drier air above.

Or, air above it can cool, which also increases potential instability. A stationary cloud directly above an isolated mountain peak, with cloud base below the elevation of the peak. In hydrologic terms, 1. The degree to which a material or object containing minute openings or passages, when immersed in a liquid, will draw the surface of the liquid above the hydrostatic level. Unless otherwise defined, the liquid is generally assumed to be water.

The phenomenon by which water is held in interstices above the normal hydrostatic level, due to attraction between water molecules. In hydrologic terms, the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action. This layer ranges in depth from a couple of inches, to a few feet, and it depends on the pore sizes of the materials. The capillary fringe is also called the capillary zone. Waves caused by the initial wind stress on the water surface causes what are known as capillary waves. These have a wavelength of less than 1. Capillary waves are important in starting the process of energy transfer from the air to the water. Used interchangably with Capillary Fringe; the soil area just above the water table where water can rise up slightly through the cohesive force of capillary action.

A region of negative buoyancy below an existing level of free convection LFC where energy must be supplied to the parcel to maintain its ascent. This tends to inhibit the development of convection until some physical mechanism can lift a parcel to its LFC. The intensity of the cap is measured by its convective inhibition. The term capping inversion is sometimes used, but an inversion is not necessary for the conditions producing convective inhibition to exist.

Alternate term for Cap; a layer of relatively warm air aloft, usually several thousand feet above the ground, which suppresses or delays the development of thunderstorms. CO2; a colorless and odorless gas which is the fourth most abundant constituent of dry air. A Catalina Eddy coastal eddy forms when upper level large-scale flow off Point Conception interacts with the complex topography of the Southern California coastline. As a result, a counter clockwise circulating low pressure area forms with its center in the vicinity of Catalina Island. This formation is accompanied by a southerly shift in coastal winds, a rapid increase in the depth of the marine layer, and a thickening of the coastal stratus.

Predominately these eddies occur between April and September with a peak in June. A typical Catalina eddy will allow coastal low clouds and fog to persist into the afternoon. A strong Catalina eddy may extend to feet and these clouds will move through the inland valleys and reach as far as Palmdale. In hydrologic terms, an area having a common outlet for its surface runoff also see Drainage Area or Basin, Watershed. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for a 80, 90, or percent chance of measurable precipitation 0.

See Precipitation Probability PoP. Alert stage or caution stage are used instead of caution stage in some parts of the country. CIG - The height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. A device using a laser or other light source to determine the height of a cloud base. An optical ceilometer uses triangulation to determine the height of a spot of light projected onto the base of the cloud; a laser ceilometer determines the height by measuring the time required for a pulse of light to be scattered back from the cloud base.

A typical thunderstorm consists of several cells. The term "cell" also is used to describe the radar echo returned by an individual shower or thunderstorm. Such usage, although common, is technically incorrect. The standard scale used to measure temperature in most areas outside the United States. Generally speaking, the vertical axis of a tropical cyclone, usually defined by the location of minimum wind or minimum pressure. The cyclone center position can vary with altitude. In advisory products, refers to the center position at the surface.

In solar-terrestrial terms, the passage of an Active Region or other feature across the longitude meridian that passes through the apparent center of the solar disk. The average flow in cubic feet per second for any time period is the volume of flow in cfs-days. A National Weather Service precipitation descriptor for 30, 40, or 50 percent chance of measurable precipitation 0. When the precipitation is convective in nature, the term scattered is used.

In hydrologic terms, also known as Watercourse; an open conduit either naturally or artificially created which periodically, or continuously contains moving water, or forms a connecting link between two bodies of water. River, creek, run, branch, anabranch, and tributary are some of the terms used to describe natural channels.

Natural channels may be single or braided. Canal and floodway are some of the terms used to describe artificial channels. In hydrologic terms, water, which at any instant, is flowing into the channel system form surface flow, subsurface flow, base flow, and rainfall that has directly fallen onto the channel. In hydrologic terms, an elongated opening in the ice cover caused by a water current. In hydrologic terms, the process of determining progressively timing and shape of the flood wave at successive points along a river. In mountainous areas or in cities with tall buildings, air may be channeled through constricted passages producing high winds.

Santa Ana winds and winds through passes from the cold Alaskan interior to the sea are examples of these winds. Channeled high winds are local in nature but can be extremely strong. These winds generally occur in well-defined areas. In hydrologic terms, the modification of a natural river channel; may include deepening, widening, or straightening. A computer model used in air pollution investigations that simulates chemical and photochemical reactions of the pollutants during their transport and diffusion. This is a region-specific term used for Foehn Winds in the lee of the Rocky Mountains in the United States; Foehn Winds are warm, dry winds that occur in the lee of high mountain ranges.

It is a fairly common wintertime phenomena in the mountainous west and in parts of Alaska. These winds develop in well-defined areas and can be quite strong. A foehn cloud formation appearing as a bank of altostratus clouds east of the Rocky Mountains, heralding the approach of a chinook. It forms in the rising portion of standing waves on the lee side of the mountains. An observer underneath or east of the cloud sees an arch of clear air between the clouds leading edge and the mountains below.

The cloud appears to converge with the mountains to the north and south due to a perspective effect. CFCs - Manufactured substances used as coolants and computer-chip cleaners. When these products break down they destroy stratospheric ozone, creating the Antarctic Ozone Hole in the Southern Hemisphere spring Northern Hemisphere autumn. While no longer in use, their long lifetime will lead to a very slow removal from the atmosphere. In solar-terrestrial terms, the layer of the solar atmosphere above the photosphere and beneath the transition region and the corona.

In solar-terrestrial terms, flares that are just Chromospheric Events without Centimetric Bursts or Ionospheric Effects. SID Class C flare. The flow, or movement, of a fluid e. A cirriform cloud characterized by thin, white patches, each of which is composed of very small granules or ripples. These clouds are of high altitude 20,, ft or , m. A cloud of a class characterized by a composition of ice crystals and often by the production of halo phenomena and appearing as a whitish and usually somewhat fibrous veil, often covering the whole sky and sometimes so thin as to be hardly discernible.

CI High-level clouds 16, feet or higher , composed of ice crystals and appearing in the form of white, delicate filaments or white or mostly white patches or narrow bands. Cirrus clouds typically have a fibrous or hairlike appearance, and often are semi-transparent. Thunderstorm anvils are a form of cirrus cloud, but most cirrus clouds are not associated with thunderstorms. The time of morning at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon. At this time, there is enough light for objects to be distiguishable and that outdoor activities can commence.

The time at which the sun is 6 degrees below the horizon in the evening. At this time objects are distinguishable but there is no longer enough light to perform any outdoor activities. CEM - A message issued by the National Weather Service in coordination with Federal, state or local government to warn the general public of a non-weather related time-critical emergency which threatens life or property, e. Geographic areas designated by the Clean Air Act where only a small amount or increment of air quality deterioration is permissible.

CAT - In aviation, sudden severe turbulence occurring in cloudless regions that causes violent buffeting of aircraft. A thin coating of ice on terrestrial objects, caused by rain that freezes on impact. The ice is relatively transparent, as opposed to rime ice, because of large drop size, rapid accretion of liquid water, or slow dissipation of latent heat of fusion. With respect to severe thunderstorms, a local region of clearing skies or reduced cloud cover, indicating an intrusion of drier air; often seen as a bright area with higher cloud bases on the west or southwest side of a wall cloud.

A clear slot is believed to be a visual indication of a rear flank downdraft. As used in connection with reimbursable National Weather Service NWS fire weather services, a public fire service or wildlands management agency, Federal or non-Federal, which requires and uses NWS fire and forestry meteorological services. The composite or generally prevailing weather conditions of a region, throughout the year, averaged over a series of years.

A non-random change in climate that is measured over several decades or longer. The change may be due to natural or human-induced causes. It is issued by the fifteenth of the month. Mathematical model for quantitatively describing, simulating, and analyzing the interactions between the atmosphere and underlying surface e. A climate outlook issued by the CPC gives probabilities that conditions, averaged over a specified period, will be below-normal, normal, or above-normal.

The Center serves the public by assessing and forecasting the impacts of short-term climate variability, emphasizing enhanced risks of weather-related extreme events, for use in mitigating losses and maximizing economic gains. The system consisting of the atmosphere gases , hydrosphere water , lithosphere solid rocky part of the Earth , and biosphere living that determine the Earths climate. An outlook based upon climatological statistics for a region, abbreviated as CL on seasonal outlook maps. CL indicates that the climate outlook has an equal chance of being above normal, normal, or below normal. The science that deals with the phenomena of climates or climatic conditions.

An instrument that measures angles of inclination; used to measure cloud ceiling heights. A basin draining to some depression or pond within its area, from which water is lost only by evaporation or percolation. A basin without a surface outlet for precipitation falling precipitation. Flooding that occurs on lakes with either no outlet or a relatively small one. Seasonal increases in rainfall cause the lake level to rise faster than it can drain. The water may stay at flood stage for weeks, months, or years. A low pressure area with a distinct center of cyclonic circulation which can be completely encircled by one or more isobars or height contour lines.

The term usually is used to distinguish a low pressure area aloft from a low-pressure trough. Closed lows aloft typically are partially or completely detached from the main westerly current, and thus move relatively slowly see Cutoff Low. CLD A visible aggregate of minute water droplets or ice particles in the atmosphere above the Earths surface.

Same as Ceiling; the height of the cloud base for the lowest broken or overcast cloud layer. Small particles in the air on which water vapor condenses and forms cloud droplets. An array of clouds whose bases are at approximately the same level. Rows of cumulus or cumulus-type clouds aligned parallel to the low-level flow.

Cloud streets sometimes can be seen from the ground, but are seen best on satellite photographs. Radar echoes that interfere with observation of desired signals on the radar display. The process by which water droplets in a cloud collide and come together to form raindrops. Flooding which occurs when water is driven onto land from an adjacent body of water. This generally occurs when there are significant storms, such as tropical and extratropical cyclones. Includes the area from a line approximating the mean high water along the mainland or island as far out as nautical miles including the bays, harbors and sounds. The marine forecast for areas, including bays, harbors, and sounds, from a line approximating the mean high water mark average height of high water over a year period along the mainland or near shore islands extending out to as much as NM.

Minor flooding is possible i. Flooding that will pose a serious threat to life and property is occurring, imminent or highly likely. Flooding with significant impacts is possible. This flooding may impact the immediate oceanfront, gulfs, bays, back bays, sounds, and tidal portions of river mouths and inland tidal waterways. Lakeshore flooding impacts the immediate lakefront, bays, and the interfaces of lakes and connecting waterways, such as rivers. A radar that utilizes both signal phase and amplitude to determine target characteristics. Downslope flow pulsations that occur at more or less regular intervals as cold air builds up on a peak or plateau, reaches a critical mass, and then cascades down the slopes.

A shallow cold air mass which is carried up the slope of a mountain barrier, but with insufficient strength to surmount the barrier. The cold air, trapped upwind of the barrier alters the effective terrain configuration of the barrier to larger-scale approaching flows. The phenomenon in which a low-level cold air mass is trapped topographically.

Often, this cold air is entrenched on the east side of mountainous terrain. Cold Air Damming often implies that the trapped cold air mass is influencing the dynamics of the overlying air mass, e. Effects on the weather may include cold temperatures, freezing precipitation, and extensive cloud cover. A funnel cloud or rarely a small, relatively weak tornado that can develop from a small shower or thunderstorm when the air aloft is unusually cold hence the name.

They are much less violent than other types of tornadoes. A zone separating two air masses, of which the cooler, denser mass is advancing and replacing the warmer. A frontal zone formed when a cold front overtakes a warm front and, being colder than the air ahead of the warm front, slides under the warm front, lifting it aloft. Compare with warm occlusion. A region of relatively cold air, represented on a weather map analysis as a relative minimum in temperature surrounded by closed isotherms. Cold pools aloft represent regions of relatively low stability, while surface-based cold pools are regions of relatively stable air.

A generally circular ring of cloud that may be observed on rare occasions surrounding the upper part of a wall cloud. This term sometimes is used incorrectly as a synonym for wall cloud. The fraction of droplets approaching a surface that actually deposit on that surface. A low pressure storm system that forms in winter in southeastern Colorado or northeastern New Mexico and tracks northeastward across the central plains of the U. In hydrologic terms, ice consisting of columnar shaped grain. The ordinary black ice is usually columnar-grained. Generally referred to as SEAS. Used to describe the combination or interaction of wind waves and swells in which the separate components are not distinguished.

This includes the case when swell is negligible or is not considered in describing sea state. When used, SEAS should be considered as being the same as the significant wave height. A synoptic scale cloud pattern with a characteristic comma-like shape, often seen on satellite photographs associated with large and intense low-pressure systems. A thunderstorm radar echo which has a comma-like shape. It often appears during latter stages in the life cycle of a bow echo. Typically used to refer to mountainous terrain. In general usage, it may also refer to coastal regions and heterogeneous landscapes.

An average that is calculated according to specific criteria. For example, one might want a composite for the rainfall at a given location for all years where the temperature was much above average. A stream discharge hydrograph which includes base flow, or one which corresponds to a net rain storm of duration longer than one unit period. In solar-terrestrial terms, the indicative of solar flare importance. These are common in the most intense hurricanes. They usually mark the end the period of intensification.

These hurricanes then maintain quasi-constant intensity or weaken. When the inner eye is completely dissipated, more intensification may occur. In general, the physical process by which a vapor becomes a liquid or solid; the opposite of evaporation, although on the molecular scale, both processes are always occurring. A funnel-shaped cloud associated with rotation and consisting of condensed water droplets as opposed to smoke, dust, debris, etc. An atmospheric condition that exists when the environmental lapse rate is less than the dry adiabatic lapse rate but greater than the moist adiabatic lapse rate.

Flow of heat in response to a temperature gradient within an object or between objects that are in physical contact. In hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate. The volume of the cone will vary with the rate of withdrawal of water. Also called the Cone of Influence. Same as Cone of Depression; in hydrologic terms, the depression, roughly conical in shape, produced in a water table, or other piezometric surface, by the extraction of water from a well at a given rate.

In hydrologic terms, ground water held under an aquiclude or an aquifuge, called artesian if the pressure is positive. A pattern of wind flow in which air flows inward toward an axis oriented parallel to the general direction of flow. It is the opposite of difluence. Confluence is not the same as convergence. Winds often accelerate as they enter a confluent zone, resulting in speed divergence which offsets the apparent converging effect of the confluent flow. The act that assigned the responsibility of river and floor forecasting for the benefit of the general welfare of the Nation's people and economy to the Weather Bureau, and subsequently the National Weather Service.

With regards to wildfires, pattern of plume dispersion in a neutral atmosphere, in which the plume attains the form of a cone with its vertex at the top of the stack. Two points on the earths surface, at opposite ends of a geomagnetic field line. In hydrologic terms, storage of water for later release for usual purposes such as municipal water supply, power, or irrigation in contrast with storage capacity used for flood control. In hydrologic terms, ice cover formed by the packing and freezing together of floes, brash ice and other forms of floating ice. Alternate term for Isobaric Chart a weather map representing conditions on a surface of equal atmospheric pressure. For example, a mb chart will display conditions at the level of the atmosphere at which the atmospheric pressure is mb.

In hydrologic terms, the volume of water in a reservoir. Unless otherwise indicated reservoir content is computed on the basis of a level pool and does not include bank storage. A dry air mass originating over a large land area. Contrast with tropical air mass. The zone bordering a continent and extending to a depth, usually around FM, from which there is a steep descent toward greater depth. In solar-terrestrial terms, general term for solar noise lasting for hours and sometimes days. In hydrologic terms, small monuments securely embedded in the surface of the dam. Any movement of the monument indicates a movement in the dam itself. Movements in the dam are detected by comparing control points location to location of fixed monuments located off the dam using accurate survey techniques.

Generally, transport of heat and moisture by the movement of a fluid. In meteorology, the term is used specifically to describe vertical transport of heat and moisture in the atmosphere, especially by updrafts and downdrafts in an unstable atmosphere. The terms "convection" and "thunderstorms" often are used interchangeably, although thunderstorms are only one form of convection. However, convection is not always made visible by clouds.

Convection which occurs without cloud formation is called dry convection, while the visible convection processes referred to above are forms of moist convection. The unstable boundary layer that forms at the surface and grows upward through the day as the ground is heated by the sun and convective currents transfer heat upwards into the atmosphere. The vertically developed family of clouds are cumulus and cumulonimbus. The height of their bases range from as low as 1, feet to a bit more than 10, feet. Clouds with extensive vertical development are positive indications of unstable air.

Strong upward currents in vertically developed clouds can carry high concentrations of supercooled water to high levels where temperatures are quite cold. Upper portions of these clouds may be composed of water and ice. CCL - The level in the atmosphere to which an air parcel, if heated from below, will rise dry adiabatically, without becoming colder than its environment just before the parcel becomes saturated.

CIN or B- - A numerical measure of the strength of "capping," typically used to assess thunderstorm potential. Specifically, it represents the cumulative effect of atmospheric layers the are warmer than the parcel moving vertically along the adiabat. Low level parcel ascent is often inhibited by such stable layers near the surface. If natural processes fail to destabilize the lower levels, an input of energy from forced lift a front, an upper level shortwave, etc. Since CIN is proportional to the amount of kinetic energy that a parcel loses to buoyancy while it is colder than the surrounding environment, it contributes to the downward momentum.

The terms approaching, slight risk, moderate risk, and high risk are used to describe severe thunderstorm potential. Local versions sometimes are prepared by local NWS offices. Convection that covers the sky with clouds, thereby cutting off the sunshine that produces convection. The approximate temperature that the air near the ground must warm to in order for surface-based convection to develop, based on analysis of a sounding.

Calculation of the convective temperature involves many assumptions, such that thunderstorms sometimes develop well before or well after the convective temperature is reached or may not develop at all. However, in some cases the convective temperature is a useful parameter for forecasting the onset of convection. A contraction of a vector field; the opposite of divergence. Convergence in a horizontal wind field indicates that more air is entering a given area than is leaving at that level. To compensate for the resulting "excess," vertical motion may result: Upward forcing from low-level convergence increases the potential for thunderstorm development when other factors, such as instability, are favorable.

Compare with confluence. In hydrologic terms, the loss of water from a conduit due to leakage, seepage, evaporation, or evapo-transpiration. CDD - A form of Degree Day used to estimate energy requirements for air conditioning or refrigeration. An individual or institution who takes precipitation and temperature observations-and in some cases other observations such as river stage, soil temperature, and evaporation-at or near their home, or place of business. Many observers transmit their reports by touch-tone telephone to an NWS computer, and nearly all observers mail monthly reports to the National Climatic Data Center to be archived and published.

By international agreement, the local time at the prime meridian, which passes through Greenwich, England. It is also known a "Z time" or "Zulu Time". Core punching is not a recommended procedure for storm spotting. A fictitious force used to account for the apparent deflection of a body in motion with respect to the earth, as seen by an observer on the earth. The deflection to the right in the Northern Hemisphere is caused by the rotation of the earth.

A small-scale convergence effect that can be quite severe. It occurs around steep islands and headlands. In solar-terrestrial terms, a white or colored circle or set of concentric circles of light of small radius seen around a luminous body, especially around the sun or moon. The color varies from blue inside to red outside and the phenomenon is attributed to diffraction of light by thin clouds or mist distinguished from halo.

In solar-terrestrial terms, an extended region of the corona, exceptionally low in density and associated with unipolar photospheric regions. CRN In solar-terrestrial terms, material condensing in the corona and appearing to rain down into the chromosphere as observed at the solar limb above strong sunspots. In solar-terrestrial terms, a general term for short-time-scale changes in the corona, but principally used to describe outward-moving plasma clouds. An output of the mesocyclone detection algorithm indicating a 3-dimensional shear region i. The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings.

The group of counties for which a National Weather Service Forecast Office is responsible for issuing warnings and weather forecasts. Same as Coupled Model; in the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other. In the context of climate modeling this usually refers to a numerical model which simulates both atmospheric and oceanic motions and temperatures and which takes into account the effects of each component on the other.

A small stream of water which serves as the natural drainage course for a drainage basin of nominal, or small size. The term is a relative one as to size, some creeks in the humid section would be called rivers if they occurred in the arid portion. The alternating bands of light and dark rays and shadows seen at the earths surface when the sun shines through clouds. Highest point in a wave. In hydrologic terms, 1 The highest stage or level of a flood wave as it passes a point. A gage used to obtain a record of flood crests at sites where recording gages are installed. In hydrologic terms, the thickness or width of a dam at the level of the crest top of the dam.

The term "thickness" is used for gravity and arch dams and "width" for other types of dams. In hydrologic terms, The depth of water flowing in an open channel or conduit, partially filled, corresponding to one of the recognized critical velocities. In hydrologic terms, a condition of flow where the mean velocity is at one of the critical values; ordinarily at Belangers critical depth and velocity. Another important usage is in reference to the Reynolds critical velocities which define the point at which the flow changes from streamline or nonturbulent to turbulent flow. CRP - In hydrologic terms, the Probability that the actual precipitation during a rainfall event has exceeded or will exceed the flash flood guidance value.

In solar-terrestrial terms, a sudden deviation in the sunlit geomagnetic field H component; see geomagnetic elements associated with large solar flare X-ray emission. In , Palmer developed the index to assess short-term crop water conditions and needs across major crop-producing regions. This index is a useful tool in forecasting short-term drought conditions. A thermally driven wind that blows during daytime across the axis of a valley toward the heated sidewall. A fire where flames travel from tree to tree at the level of the trees crown or top. Movement of a fire from the understory into the crown of a forest canopy. The science of the physical aspects of snow, ice, hail, and sleet and other forms of water produced by temperatures below Zero degrees Celsius.

CFP - In hydrologic terms, a unit expressing rates of discharge. One cubic foot per second is equal to the discharge through a rectangular cross section, 1 foot wide by 1 foot deep, flowing at an average velocity of 1 foot per second. It is also approximately 7. Descriptive of all clouds with vertical development in the form of rising mounds, domes, or towers. A thunderstorm anvil with visual characteristics resembling cumulus-type clouds rather than the more typical fibrous appearance associated with cirrus.

A cumuliform anvil arises from rapid spreading of a thunderstorm updraft, and thus implies a very strong updraft. See anvil rollover, knuckles, mushroom. CU - detached clouds, generally dense and with sharp outlines, showing vertical development in the form of domes, mounds, or towers. Clouds which develop vertically due to unstable air. Characterized by their cauliflower-like or tower-like appearance of moderately large size. A large, towering cumulus cloud with great vertical development, usually with a cauliflower-like appearance, but lacking the characteristic anvil of a cumulonimbus.

A horizontal movement of water. Currents may be classified as tidal and nontidal. Tidal currents are caused by gravitational interactions between the sun, moon, and earth and are a part of the same general movement of the sea that is manifested in the vertical rise and fall, called TIDE. Tidal currents are periodic with a net velocity of zero over the tidal cycle. Nontidal currents include the permanent currents in the general circulatory systems of the sea as well as temporary currents arising from more pronounced meteorological variability.

In hydrologic terms, device used to measure the water velocity or current in a river. In hydrologic terms, a drain constructed at the upper end of the area to be drained, to intercept surface or ground water flowing toward the protected area from higher ground, and carry it away from the area. Also called an Intercepting Drain. An impervious construction or material which reduces seepage or prevents it.

A closed upper-level low which has become completely displaced cut off from basic westerly current, and moves independently of that current. Cutoff lows may remain nearly stationary for days, or on occasion may move westward opposite to the prevailing flow aloft i. However, not all closed lows are completely removed from the influence of the basic westerlies. Therefore, the recommended usage of the terms is to reserve the use of "cutoff low" only to those closed lows which clearly are detached completely from the westerlies.

A thunderstorm that undergoes cycles of intensification and weakening pulses while maintaining its individuality. Cyclic supercells are capable of producing multiple tornadoes i. CYC - A large-scale circulation of winds around a central region of low atmospheric pressure, counterclockwise in the Northern Hemisphere, clockwise in the Southern Hemisphere. Circulation or rotation which is in the same sense as the Earths rotation, i.

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